Gerson Digital : Italy


2.2 The First Generation of Landscape Painters in Rome

At this point we must go back to the beginning of the 17th century and turn our attention to landscape painting. Once again, fleeting mention at least must be made of the Flemish artists to avoid any gross misrepresentation of the image of the group of specialists in the field. Needless to say, landscape art in Rome did not assume a purely Flemish character due to the presence of the brothers Paul and Matthijs Bril.1 Venice and Bologna, in particular, could point to a vibrant local tradition, the leading representative of which in Bologna was Annibale Carracci (1560-1609). In 1600 the brothers Bril were joined in Rome by Adam Elsheimer (1578-1610), whose small landscapes with their mythological and biblical staffage evoked intense admiration. Whereas Matthijs Bril , who died as early as 1583, adhered to Mannerist landscapes, his younger brother Paul Bril (1553/54-1626), who was fortunate enough to be able to express himself in both frescoes and cabinet paintings, initiated a move towards naturalistic landscapes. The frescoes in Santa Cecilia in Trastevere (c. 1599) [1-2] and the Vatican (1606/7) [3] – to mention just two of his works – are outstanding atmospheric landscapes which had a great impact.2

Paul Bril and studio of Paul Bril and Cristoforo Pomarancio
Saint Anthony of Egypt, c. 1600
stucco, fresco (technique) 60 x 80 cm
Rome, Basilica di Santa Cecilia in Trastevere (Rome)

Paul Bril
Fresco cycle in the Santa Cecilia in Trastevere in Rome, c. 1600
stucco, fresco (technique) ? x ? cm
Rome, Basilica di Santa Cecilia in Trastevere (Rome)

Paul Bril
Rocky landscape with a waterfall and a hermit, c. 1605-1607
stucco, fresco (technique) ? x ? cm
Vaticaanstad, Palazzo Apostolico (Vaticaanstad)

Guilliam van Nieulandt (II)
Two travelers talking at a river valley, dated 1604
paper, pen in brown ink, blue and brown wash 165 x 213 mm
lower left : Roma G. Nieuwelant / 1604
Amsterdam, Stichting P. en N. de Boer, inv./ 467

Guilliam van Nieulandt (II)
View of the Quirinal in Rome, dated 17 October 16(03]
paper, pen in brown ink, brown and grey wash, blue wash 274 x 434 mm
lower right : palatso de .../ monte cavael .../ In Roma al ... / 17 ottober 16[...]
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ Z 1272

The older Guilliam van Nieulandt I (c. 1560-1626), whom the Italians called Guglielmo Terranova, was in Rome with his nephew Guilliam van Nieulandt II (1584-1635) before the turn of the century.3 The latter, who was trained by Paul Bril, returned to Antwerp in 1604 and later settled in Amsterdam.4 We are familiar with a number of his charming drawings in pen and wash of Roman ruins, the layered composition of which was a feature characteristic of his teacher [4-5].5 These topographically fascinating sketches must have been very popular north of the Alps. In 1618, van Nieulandt published in Antwerp a book of engravings of ancient Roman ruins, for which he probably also used drawings by his uncle who had remained in Rome. He made etchings after works by Bril as well.6 His paintings were much plainer and more schematic than those of his model. His nephew, Adriaen van Nieulandt (1586/7-1658) , who probably never went to Rome, also painted views of the city, for which he was able to find sufficient models in the north.

In taking Adam Elsheimer as their source of inspiration, a second exclusively Dutch group to visit Rome in the first decade of the 17th century largely turned their backs on pure landscapes. This group included Pieter Lastman (1583-1633) [6], Jan Tengnagel (1584-1635), Jan Pynas (c. 1581/2-1631)7 [7-8] and his brother Jacob Pynas (c. 1592/3-after 1650),8 Mozes van Wtenbrouck (c. 1595-1647) 9 and Hendrick Goudt (c. 1583-1648), the latter not as a painter but as an engraver of Elsheimer’s compositions [9]. 10 The members of this group discarded the Mannerist flourishes of their youth, embracing instead the composed, classical style characteristic of Elsheimer and Carracci. Like Dutch Caravaggism, this movement runs counter to the dissemination of Dutch art, so we will have to content ourselves here with this brief reference to it.11

Pieter Lastman
View of the Palatine in Rome, dated 1606
paper, pen in brown ink, brown wash, over graphite 164 x 230 mm
lower left : Roma 1606
Private collection

Jan Pynas
View of the Tiber in Rome, c. 1605
paper, black chalk, pen and brush in brown 185 x 310 mm
Private collection

Jan Pynas
Laban searching for his stolen household gods, dated 1617
paper, pen in brown ink, grey wash, over black chalk 183 x 244 mm
lower right : Jan Pynas ft / Romae 1617
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./ RP-T-1911-87

Hendrick Goudt after Adam Elsheimer
Tobit and the angel near a river, dated 1608
paper, engraving (printing process) 135 x 191 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./ RP-P-H-N-37

Gerard ter Borch (I)
Ruins of the Colosseum in Rome, dated 1609
paper, pen in brown ink 175 x 270 mm
upper left : G.T.Borch.F. in Roma. Anno i609
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./ A 867

Gerard ter Borch (I)
North side of the Arch of Constantine in Rome, dated 1609
paper, pen in brown ink 165 x 270 mm
upper left : G.T.Borch.F in Roma. Anno 1609
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./ A 866

Gerard ter Borch (I)
Ruins of the baths of Caracalla in Rome, probably 1609
paper, pen in brown ink 197 x 250 mm
in verso : terme antoniano
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./ A 876

Gerard ter Borch I (1582/83-1662), who travelled to Rome via Germany and Venice, resumed the tradition established by Maarten van Heemskerck, Paulus Bril and the Nieulandts of producing drawn vedute of ruins. Between 1607 and 1609 he drew the Colosseum in Rome [10], Constantine’s Arch [11], the ‘termo Antoniano[12-13] and many other ruins. He also searched for motifs ‘buytten Roma’ (outside Rome) [14-15]; he went to Tivoli and was in Naples in 1610 [16].12

François van Knibbergen (1596/7-after 1664) was in Italy in 1614 and Pieter de Molijn (1596-1661) entered his name in Wybrand de Geest’s (1592-1661) friendship album in Rome in 1618,13 but there appears to be no firm evidence of Jan van de Velde’s (1593-1641) sojourn in Rome.14 None of Knibbergen’s ‘Italian’ works have survived; he followed so closely in the wake of Jan van Goyen that there are no Italian elements whatsoever in his style. Various works recalling their stay in Italy have come down to us from Jan van de Velde II and Pieter de Molijn. The two drawings by Molijn, however, are works based on the memories of his youth that he produced as an old man in Holland in 1653 and 1658 [17-18].15

More important for our purposes and of greater significance is the graphic oeuvre of Cornelis van Poelenburch (1594/5-1667)16 and Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Poelenburch was in Rome from 1617 to 1622, although he spent some time during those years in Florence [19], where he must have met Jacques Callot. It can be assumed that Poelenburch also learned from Elsheimer and he will definitely have admired Bril’s works. However, he was probably the first Dutch landscape painter whose works attracted attention in Rome because of their artistic and not their topographical character and consequently found their way into Italian collections.17 Poelenburch’s charming cabinet pieces featuring dancing putti and rejoicing angels [20] as well as a peaceful flight into Egypt [21] are more graceful than the mythological images of Francesco Albani (1578-1660) from Bologna, who was highly regarded by his contemporaries. Poelenburch also presents his vedute in a new guise [22-23].

Gerard ter Borch (I)
Ruins of the baths of Caracalla in Rome, dated 1607
paper, pen in brown ink 186 x 258 mm
upper left : G.T.Borch. Fecit in Roemen. Anno 1607
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./ A 865

Gerard ter Borch (I)
Landscape with the Ponte Milvio, outside of Rome, dated 1609
paper, inkt, pen 138 x 265 mm
upper left : G.T.Borch.F.buijtten Roma. Anno 1609
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./ RP-T-1887-A-873

Gerard ter Borch (I)
Garden of the Villa Madama, outside of rome, dated 1609
paper, inkt, brush 275 x 195 mm
upper left : G.T.Borch.F. buijtten Rome. Anno 1609
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./ RP-T-1887-A-872

Gerard ter Borch (I)
View of Naples and Vomero, dated 1610
paper, pen in brown ink 137 x 202 mm
upper left : G.T.B.Fecit tot Napeles. Anno 1610
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./ A 881

Pieter de Molijn
Fantasy landscape with the temple of the Sibyl in Tivoli, dated 1658
paper, black chalk 191 x 301 mm
upper left : P. Molijn / 1658
Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv./ 22.756

Pieter de Molijn
Fantasy view with de Ripa Grande in Rome, dated 1653
paper, black chalk 142 x 195 mm
upper right : Molyn 1653
Darmstadt, Hessisches Landesmuseum (Darmstadt), inv./ AE 837

Cornelis van Poelenburch
Mozes striking the rock, c. 1617-1625
copper, oil paint 45.5 x 63.5 cm
Florence, Palazzo Pitti, inv./ 1220

Cornelis van Poelenburch
Sine Cerere et Baccho friget Venus
panel, oil paint 54 x 73.7 cm
Lille (France), Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille, inv./ 604

Cornelis van Poelenburch
Landscape with the rest on the flight into Egypt, 1625-1667
copper, oil paint 23.8 x 26 cm
Poughkeepsie (New York), Vassar College Art Gallery, inv./ 65.9

Cornelis van Poelenburch
Capriccio of Roman ruins with figures and cattle, Castel Sant' Angelo in the background, 1620 (dated)
copper, oil paint 40 x 54.5 cm
lower left : MDCXX
Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv./ 1084

Cornelis van Poelenburch
Ruins in Rome with a bas-relief with Mark Anthony, c. 1620
copper, oil paint 44 x 57 cm
Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv./ 1086

One senses that he had experienced the mood of the south and attempted to capture its sunny glow on light paper and with rapid strokes of the brush. His drawings are thus freed of the final vestiges of the pedantic rendering of antiquity with which artists were still burdened as a legacy of the 16th century. He viewed the Arch of Titus from an unconventional and unrepresentative angle [24] and was fond of picturesque ruins and ancient statues which cast peculiar harsh shadows [25]. His works were occasionally engraved, although they forfeited a great deal of their painterly charm in the process. It was perhaps not until he was back in Holland that Poelenburch produced most of his vedute, for like all his contemporaries he naturally invented other compositions at home that were based on his abundant memories of Italy. When he was in the country he seems to have preferred red chalk for his drawings.18

Cornelis van Poelenburch
Relief on the inside of the arch of Titus in Rome, dated 1621
paper, brush in brown, over black chalk 326 x 229 mm
lower right : in roomen 1621
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./ RP-T-A 3724

Cornelis van Poelenburch
Kolf-players at an ancient ruin, dated 1622
paper, inkt, pen (technique), brush 188 x 315 mm
lower left : C: Poelenburgh: f
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./ RP-T-1909-44

Bartholomeus Breenbergh
The Duke of Bracciano at the Lake of Bracciano, dated 1627
paper, pen and brush in brown 266 x 419 mm
lower right : Bartholomeo. Breenberch. f. Ao. 1627 (sic).
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./ RP-T-1967-73

This type of landscape art was continued by Bartholomeus Breenbergh (1598-1657), who was active in Rome from 1620 to 1629 [26-27].19 He started out as a pupil of Paulus Bril and his rich drawn oeuvre makes it possible to monitor his progress from Mannerism to the natural rendering of nature from a predominantly aerial perspective. In all probability the older Poelenburch nudged him in the right direction. The landscape images he produced during his time in Rome are painted in a gentle and airy manner in the style of Poelenburch [28]; later on he was exposed to other influences which led him to embrace Amsterdam-style classicism.20

Bartholomeus Breenbergh
In the park of castello Bomarzo, dated 1625
paper, pen, brown ink, brown and grey-brown wash 407 x 280 mm
upper center : A Castel Bomarso
Paris, Fondation Custodia - Collection Frits Lugt, inv./ 4478

Bartholomeus Breenbergh
Ruin landscape with Saint Peter and John, c. 1625
copper, oil paint 24 x 33.3 cm
lower right : BB. f.
Kassel (Hessen), Museum Schloss Wilhelmshöhe, inv./ GK 205

Breenbergh’s drawings are very similar to the early works of Claude Lorrain (1604/5-1682). Claude is said to have worked in the studio of Agostino Tassi (1578-1644) in 1617 when he was 13 years of age. He then disappeared from sight before re-emerging in Rome in 1625 and again in 1627. By this time, however, Breenbergh had already consolidated his painterly, ‘sunny’ style, which Claude admired and must have assimilated. We mentioned earlier that Claude and Breenbergh knew each other, since they were next door neighbours, as it were, in the Via del Babuino in 1625.21 Claude may have incorporated some Netherlandish elements from Agostino Tassi as well. Tassi, who worked with Remigio Cantagallina (1575-1656)22 in Livorno around 1600, was in Rome when he met Paulus Bril, whose works made a great impression on him.23 Evidence of this is provided by Tassi’s coastal views in Palazzo Lancellotti [29-30] and Palazzo Doria Pamphili [31-32]. In these scenes, which date to the second half of the 1630s, Tassi moves beyond Bril’s layered composition. Could it be that he, too, perceived something in the loose and airy renderings of the Dutch landscape painters? It was not given to the Dutch artists to try out this style in frescoes, but Tassi, who copied one of Bril’s cabinet paintings, will also have been familiar with the paintings and drawings by Poelenburch and Breenbergh.

Agostino Tassi
Fantasy Landscape with the temple of Sibyl, c. 1625-1626
fresco (technique) ? x ? cm
Rome, Lancellotti Collection

Agostino Tassi
Ships next to an Italian coastal landscape, c. 1625-1626
fresco (technique) ? x ? cm
Rome, Lancellotti Collection

Agostino Tassi
Wallfrieze Cycle for Urban VIII in the Palazzo Doria Pamphilj, c. 1624-1630
fresco (technique) ? x ? cm
Pamphilj collection

Agostino Tassi
Two ships by the beach, c. 1624-1630
fresco (technique) ? x ? cm
Pamphilj collection

Tassi’s pupil Gottfried Wals (c. 1595/1600-in or after 1638), a native of Cologne who according to Baldinucci was Claude Lorrain’s teacher, must also have made drawings in the manner of Breenbergh, although no definitive judgment can be made on the basis of the few unsigned works that have survived [33].24 It is strange, however, that the 60 landscapes and 14 gouaches recorded in the collection of the Gaspar Roomer (1595-1674) should have disappeared entirely.25

Be that as it may, the Dutch played an active part in the formation of the Romantic image of Italy, which Claude would later perfect. The ties between this early group of Northern European, French and Italian artists become closer if we include the Bamboccianti genre painters, especially the Fleming, Jan Miel, who added staffage figures in the style of the Dutchman, Pieter van Laer, to paintings by Sacchi, Tassi and Claude. In the 1630s, the landscape art of Elsheimer and Breenbergh experienced a harmless second flowering in the works of Claes Moeyaert (1591-1661), Nicolaes Latombe (1616-1676), Marten de Cock,26 Jan van Bronchorst (c. 1603-1661) (who specialised in etchings after Poelenburch) [34]),27 Steven van Goor (1607/8-after 1659) and Chaerles de Hooch (died 1638) [35].28 Jan Both, who viewed the Roman Campagna through the eyes of Claude Lorrain in the second half of the 1630s, marks the start of a second period of Dutch landscape painting which we will examine later.29

Gottfried Wals
Ruins at the banks of a river, c. 1590
paper, brown ink, pen 145 x 145 mm
Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv./ 14523, Recto

Jan van Bronchorst after Cornelis van Poelenburch
Ruin of the Arch of Constantine at Rome, after 1625
paper, etching (printing process), 2nd state 204 x 263 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./ RP-P-BI-4896

Chaerles de Hooch
Landscape with the Emmaus goers (in the background: Rome, temple of Marcus Curtius or S. Teodoro on the Palatine), dated 1627
panel, oil paint 46 x 66 cm
below, right of the middle : Chaerles D hooch 1627
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./ SK-A-2218


1 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] General reference works on landscape painting in 17th-century Rome include Salerno 1977-1980 and Trezzani 2003.

2 [Gerson !942/1983] Baer 1930, p. 60 ff. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] For the Roman frescoes of Matthijs and Paul Bril: Hendriks 2003.

3 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] The elder Van Nieulandt arrived in Rome on 22 October 1597, while his nephew Guilliam is recorded as living in the Via Paolina in 1602 and 1603.

4 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Following his Italian sojourn, Guilliam II stayed for some time in Amsterdam, then etablished himself in Antwerp (1606-1629) and spent the last years of his life (1629-1636) in Amsterdam.

5 [Gerson 1942/1983] Blok 1925. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Schatborn 2001, p. 38-43.

6 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Guilliam II van Nieulandt as a printmaker: Te Slaa 2014.

7 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Jan Pynas was in Italy twice, once in 1605-1607 and once in 1616-1617 (Schatborn in Luijten et al. 1993-1994, p. 579 ; Schatborn 1996; Schatborn 2001, p. 46-50).

8 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Presumably Jacob travelled to Italy with his brother Jan, during Jan's second trip in 1616-1617. However, there is no archival evidence for this, and Jacob may also have borrowed Roman motifs from drawings and paintings by his elder brother and from other artists’ examples (Schatborn 2001, p. 49).

9 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Until 1964 it was commonly assumed that Wtenbrouck went to Italy; there is however no indication whatsoever that he did (Weisner 1964, p. 291).

10 [Gerson 1942/1983] Weizsäcker 1928. Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Hendrick Goudt, a descendant from a Dutch noble family, lived for several years in the Elsheimer household (1607-1610) and also acted as a benefactor of the often heavily indebted painter. After Elsheimer’s death he laid claim to several works and took them back to Utrecht. On the somewhat uneasy liaison between the two: Klessmann 2006B, p. 30-31). For the engravings Goudt made in Rome and Utrecht: Klessmann 2006A, p. 185-188.

11 [Gerson 1942/1983] For more recent literature on this group: Müller 1929 (P. Lastman), Schneider 1921 (J. Tengnagel), Bauch 1935A en Bauch 1935B (Jan Pynas), Bauch 1936 and Bauch 1937 (Jacob Pynas). Werner van den Valckert can also be counted to this group of transitional masters (Hudig 1937). [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Seifert 2006, p. 212-219; Seifert 2008.

12 [Gerson 1942/1983] Sheets from a sketchbook in Amsterdam ( 865-884). See also Blok 1925, p. 122-129. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Kettering 1988, vol. 1, p. 12-32.

13 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] For the digitized album of Wybrand de Geest in the Frisian library, click here. See also Rus 2014. De Molijn’s entry is on fol. 57v. Beck 1998 wrongly doubts De Molijn's presence in Rome, which is evidenced by his contribution to the album amicorum Wybrand de Geest: 'In Rome den 6 junij 1618/Pieter du Molyn' (de Geest 1614). No paintings from De Molijn’s Italian years are known, but he created works with Italian subjects later in his career.

14 [Gerson 1942/1983] Van Gelder 1933, p. 6. He also copied sheets from Guilliam van Nieulandt! [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Van Gelder assumed Jan van de Velde II had been in Italy on the basis of a drawing now firmly attributed to Jan Pynas by Schatborn (RKDimages 120417), illustrated above (Schatborn 1996, fig. 11, Schatborn 2001, p. 47, fig. A).

15 [Gerson 1942/1983] The drawings by Molijn in the Louvre and in Darmstadt.

16 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Poelenburch: Sluijter-Seijffert 1984 and Sluijter-Seijffert 2016. For the Gerson project, the paintings in Sluijter-Seijffert 2016 have been entered and largely updated in RKDimages.

17 [Gerson 1942/1983] It is said that there were 17 works by him in Montecassino, that the Grand Duke of Tuscany owned works by his hand, and that his works were also represented in the collection G. de Roomer. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Poelenburch’s position in the art market in Italy: Sluijter-Seijffert 2016, p. 30-33.

18 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] The large group of 44 red chalk landscape drawings kept at the Uffizi, formerly attributed to Poelenburch, is no longer considered autograph (Schatborn in Kloek/ Meijer 2008, p. 128-130). The undisputed drawings from Italy are mainly executed in pen and brush in brown ink, over traces in black chalk.

19 [Gerson 1942/1983] See the drawing mentioned in note 3, p. 151 [= § 2.3, note 3], that must however still have originated in Italy. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] The drawing is dated 1627, but was published by Hoogewerff as bearing the date 1629 (Hoogewerff 1929, p. 163).

20 [Gerson 1942/1983] Stechow 1930; Naumann 1933. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Gerson’s perception of the gentle and airy manner of Poelenburch in the landscapes of Breenbergh’s Roman period was based on two paintings, probably counterparts, in the Louvre (RKDimages 231597 and RKDimages 231595). They were wrongly attributed to Breenbergh since they were catalogued in the Musée Napoléon in 1813, an attribution which was endorsed by Stechow (Stechow 1930, fig. 1). Schaar determined in 1959 that these works are actually by Poelenburch and he noted that these wrong attributions have distorted the perception of the early works of both Poelenburch and Breenbergh for a long time (Schaar 1959, p. 36-37, fig. 11). However, the painting in Kassel, considered to be painted in Italy c. 1625, is close to Poelenburch’s style (Schnackenburg 1996, p. 17, 68).

21 [Gerson 1942/1983] See Gerson 1942/1983, p. 75. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Hoogewerff 1942, p. 21; Vodret 2011, p. 241. Although the archival source mentions ‘Bartolomeo Pittore’ without further indications, most scholars agree on the identification with Bartholomeus Breenbergh.

22 [Gerson 1942/1983] The draughtsman and engraver Remigio Cantagallina belonged to the circle of landscapists who were dependent on Paul Bril. In 1612-1613 he was in Brussels. Images in Goldschmidt 1935. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Loze/Vautier et al. 2017.

23 [Gerson 1941/1982] On Tassi: Hess 1935. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Cavazzini 2008B.

24 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Repp 1986, p. 94-120, lists 17 drawings that have been attributed to Wals. Among these sheets only the highly sophisticated circular drawing in the Louvre (illustrated here) can be considered autograph (Sutherland Harris 1978).

25 [Gerson 1942/1983] Vaes 1925, p. 184. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Capaccio 1634, p. 865: ‘Sessanta paesi del Goffredo Todesco […] oltre a quattordici quadri fatti a guazzo, del Todesco’. Over time approximately 15 paintings have surfaced that can be convincingly attributed to Wals. Salerno 1977-1980, vol. 1, p. 186-199; Repp-Eckert 1985-1986, Repp 1986, Repp-Eckert 2006. Instead, no gouaches by Wals are known. On the Roomer collection, see also § 3.1, note 17.

26 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] It is uncertain whether we are dealing with two masters, Marten de Cock (1605-1631) and Marten de Cock (1578-1661), or with one. The known works of the artist(s) do not clearly show two different hands and could be by each one of them. However, nothing points to an activity in Italy.

27 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] In 1959 Hoogewerff wrongly identified Jan van Bronchorst with a ‘Ghilardo Bruchus[t]i’, who lived with ‘Stefano Boltrii Fiamengo Pittore’ (Stefan Boltrij?) in Strada Margutta in the parish of Santa Maria del Popolo in March 1621 (Hoogewerff 1959, p. 139). Now the artist is thought not to have been in Rome at all; his sons Johan van Bronchorst (1627-1656) and Gerard van Bonchorst (c. 1636-1638) however did stay in Rome. Gerard worked in the style of Cornelis van Poelenburch and is thought to have been his pupil (Th. Döring in Saur 1992-, vol. 14 [1996], p. 355).

28 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] An artist’s trip to Italy was not a prerequisite for this ‘second flowering’, as the careers of Moeyaert, De Cock and Bronchorst show. Chaerles de Hooch occupies a special place, since his Italianate landscapes date from 1627 onwards. Gestman Geradts convincingly argues that De Hooch, who was a nephew of Margaretha of Parma, visited Italy between 1624 and 1627 and stayed with the Farnese family. He named his sons Alexander and Horatius after the brothers of his uncle, Octavius Farnese (Gestman Gerards 2017).

29 [Gerson 1942/1983] See for this group: London 1926; Hind 1926; Boyer 1933; Bartoli 1911; Egger 1931. Added to this: Orbaan 1917 and Orbaan 1933.

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