Gerson Digital : Italy


2.4 The Bambocciate in Rome and Beyond

The dispute between the Academy and the Dutch artists would never have flared up with such vehemence had it not been for a development which stirred up very strong feelings. Pieter van Laer (1599-1642) came to Rome in 1625 and immediately enjoyed great success with his new genre paintings.1 The Academy painters might have come to terms with the little pictures by Bril, Elsheimer, Breenbergh and Poelenburch, but Pieter van Laer seems to have set the temple of art on fire like some second Herostratus. That, at any rate, was Passeri’s reaction.2 All Pieter van Laer did in actual fact was to depict the life of the people in Italy in the vein of Dutch Naturalism and to demonstrate a genuine Dutch feeling for the painterly values of light and shade [1-2]. He was a native of Haarlem, where the depiction of peasant life had a certain tradition. Leonaert Bramer, Jan Liss and Domenico Fetti were similar to him in a way in their use of chiaroscuro, but Liss and Fetti remained in Venice and Bramer’s art seems to have largely stagnated in Italy. Hence Pieter van Laer had no real forerunners as such, which can only have increased the astonishment caused by his presence. It might be more correct to say that dark shadows and the lateral incidence of bright light were elements of Caravaggism which Pieter van Laer included in his small panel paintings. He was a deformed little man, which earned him the nickname of ‘Bamboccio’ (large child, wretch) [3]. According to Passeri, his name was his undoing, because his spirit drove him to paint Bambocci and Bambocciate and other demeaning and hideous scenes showing beggars and tramps – much to the delight of common folk and of those whose spirit was not guided by any lofty concepts. For Filippo Baldinucci, who had a certain degree of sympathy for this genre, ‘bambocci o fantocci’ were quite simply poor-quality paintings bereft of all understanding.3 The Bambocciate became famous, nonetheless, and with the passing of the years they developed into something of an artistic creed. In France it became customary to honour (or revile) every Naturalist, popular genre painting by referring to it as a ‘bambochade’.4 As regards Pieter van Laer’s paintings, even his adversaries were obliged to concede that he could paint ‘con una imitatione cosi esatta del natural e con una verità cosi grande’ (in a manner that reproduces nature very accurately and with great realism). Coming from Passeri that was praise indeed.5

Pieter van Laer
Blacksmith in Roman ruin, dated 1635
panel, oil paint 48.4 x 63 cm
lower center : P. de Laer Romé A° 1635
Schwerin, Staatliches Museum Schwerin, inv./ G 375

Pieter van Laer
Blind beggar
canvas on panel, oil paint 42.3 x 32.7 cm
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, inv./ 3005

Joachim von Sandrart (I)
Portrait of Pieter van Laer (1599-after 1641)
paper, black chalk 192 x 147 mm
lower right : [N: N: ?] / Bambot[ci?]
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, inv./ Cod. icon. 366

Pieter van Laer
A herd of animals near a fountain, dated 1636
paper, etching (printing process), 1st state 128 x 178 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./ RP-P-OB-46.818

The admirers of Pieter van Laer’s art by no means came solely from the camp of the ‘animi non sollevati’ [unexalted]. One of his best friends was Joachim von Sandrart (1606-1688), to whom we owe a very detailed and warm account of the artist’s life.6 He recounts an excursion the artist undertook to Tivoli in the company of Claude and Poussin. Bamboccio was the first to return home. He was such a misshapen little man that the sentry failed to spot him on his horse. A sign of the reputation Pieter van Laer enjoyed was his dedication of a series of etchings to Fernando Afán de Ribera, Duke of Alcalá (1583-1637), in 1636 [4-5]. A year later a statement was made during a trial to the effect that two pictures by Pieter van Laer, which had been stolen from the painter, Herman van Swanevelt, were worthy of a prince.7 In 1688, paintings by van Laer and other artists like himself, such as Jan Miel and Michelangelo Cerquozzi, found their way from the collection of Gaspar Roomer (Antwerp 1595-Napels 1674) collection in Naples into the hands of Prince Colonna di Stigliano in Rome.8 Many of these pictures are still in Italian collections even today and we know that aristocratic collectors by no means looked down on the Bambocciate. Marchese Vincenzo Giustiniani (1564-1637), an admirer of Caravaggio and his Dutch followers, made some instructive remarks about different levels of painting. He distinguishes twelve manners; the tenth manners sees the advent of painters who paint ‘… di maniera’ [in an accomplished manner] followed by artists who paint ‘con avere gli oggetti naturali d’avanti’ [from nature]. They receive high praise, for they know how to use light and shade to ensure smooth transitions and unity in a picture. For the most part it is Dutch artists who cultivate this style. This is a perfect description of the painting of Pieter van Laer, although Giustiniani appears to have had the Caravaggists in mind.9 These artists are surpassed only by a twelfth – the supreme – manner, i.e. by those artists who paint ‘di maniera e con l’esempio avanti del naturale’ [in an accomplished manner and with the natural object in front of them].10

Having spent 13 years in Italy, van Laer went back to Holland in 1639 at the request of Joachim von Sandrart. He died there a few years later.11 Apparently things did not turn out as he had hoped after his return home. Houbraken reports that he earned very little from his paintings, prompting him to plan a second trip to Italy. Nothing became of it, however. Pieter van Laer had virtually no influence in Haarlem. Dirk Stoop and others engraved and copied his pictures [6-7]. Houbraken provides us with a somewhat improbable story of how Philips Wouwerman came into possession of van Laer’s drawings.12 One element of truth in this story is that the young Philips Wouwerman certainly learned from van Laer’s works, as is apparent from an examination of his style.

Pieter van Laer
Swines and donkeys at a stable, to the left a woman-spinner, 1636
paper, etching (printing process), 1st state 129 x 175 mm
The Hague, RKD – Nederlands Institute for Art History (Collection Old Netherlandish Art)

Dirk Stoop
Italianate landscape with travellers haltingat a trough in a cave, after 1640
panel, oil paint 38.2 x 51.4 cm
lower right : D Stoop ƒ
Private collection

Pieter van Laer
Landscape with hunter, c. 1639-1642
panel, oil paint 30.6 x 43.3 cm
lower right : P.v.Laer
The Hague, Koninklijk Kabinet van Schilderijen Mauritshuis, inv./ 1102

The influence of Pieter’s art was of greater significance in Italy.13 To what extent his style was prepared or adopted by his teacher, Giovanni del Campo (c. 1600-after 1639), is difficult to say given the lack of confirmed works by the latter.14 Nothing is known either of the paintings of the other del Campo pupils who lived in the same accommodation as Pieter van Laer: Alexander van Wevelinckhoven (1606-1629), Stefano de Corte (c. 1590-1635), Gerard van Krik (identical with Georgius Crudanus?)15 and Reynier van Heuk e lem (born 1602/4), known as Wolf, who at his death left an art collection as well as a number of pictures commissioned by the friend of his youth.16 As regards works by Pieter van Laer’s brother, Roeland van Laer (1598-in or after 1635), who reportedly drowned in Genoa in about 1635,17 we know of only one drawing [8], which says nothing about his style as a Bambocciate painter [9].18

Roeland van Laer after Pieter van Laer
Two travelers waiting for a ferry, dated 1625
paper, pen in brown ink, washed 128 x 192 mm
upper right : orlando Bodding In 1625
Haarlem, Teylers Museum, inv./ O 7

Roeland van Laer
Induction celebration of the Schildersbent in Rome, probably 1626
canvas, oil paint 88 x 147.5 cm
topside, left of the middle : ROVLaer
Rome, Museo di Roma, inv./ MR 26031

Leonaert Bramer
Soldiers Resting, dated 1626
blackboard slate (material), oil paint 21 x 14 cm
lower left : LvB 1626
The Hague, Museum Bredius, inv./ 28-1946

Leonaert Bramer (1596-1674) arrived in Rome ten years before Pieter van Laer. He remained in the city until 1627/8 and so will have had an opportunity to welcome his fellow countryman. He will undoubtedly have paid him a call, for the first dated picture by Bramer to have survived shows quite clearly that the new arrival’s paintings made a great impression on him [10].19 It should be borne in mind that during his extended journeys through Italy – he is said to have been to Venice, Florence, Mantua, Bologna and many other places – Bramer will have seen and assimilated many different kinds of art.20 He was pleased by the works of Bassano and Fetti in Venice and must have very much liked the delicate little pictures made by Elsheimer and his circle in Rome. Bramer seems to have painted a great deal when he was in the city. Cornelis de Bie mentions some of his paintings, and in about 1630 over 40 pictures by ‘Leonardo’ were recorded in the Gaspar Roomer collection, which had previously attracted the attention of Joachim von Sandrart.21 Perhaps Bramer was in Rome again around 1635-1640.22 That would fit in with a number of his Italianate paintings which date to this time. Above all, it would explain several ‘Rembrandtesque’ pictures by Salvator Rosa who had arrived in Rome around 1635 and had an open eye for Dutch art [11].23 Bramer might well have been the one who made Rembrandt’s style known. Salvator Rosa also seems to have been familiar with drawings by Rembrandt and Lievens at an early stage.24

Salvator Rosa
Soldiers Gambling, probably between 1656-1658
canvas, oil paint 77.1 x 61.6 cm
lower right : SR
Dulwich (London), Dulwich Picture Gallery, inv./ DPG216

After the Flemish artist, Jan Miel (c. 1599-1664), arrived in Rome in the early 1630s he enthusiastically embraced the new direction embarked upon by the painters of Bambocciate and so he deserves to be dealt with here. The sources expressly state that he was especially talented at imitating the works of Pieter van Laer, which is confirmed by the works of this former pupil of Anthony van Dyck (or Gerard Seghers?) [12-13].25 The members of the Academy naturally expressed their disapproval, although they were obliged to concede that the Bamboccio style was extremely popular and that Miel’s little pictures were capable of ‘d’infettare alcune Gallerie per altro degne di gran Personaggio’ [defiling galleries otherwise dignified by great artists].26 Balduccini came to the defence of his depictions of ordinary folk by pointing out that if the objective of painting was ‘la forza dell’imitazione’ [the power of imitation] then no reproach could be made. Jan Miel was not by any means a fanatical painter of the common people.

Jan Miel
Resting peasants having a meal at an inn
canvas, oil paint 49 x 68 cm
Madrid (Spain), Museo Nacional del Prado, inv./ 1570

Jan Miel
Roman lime kiln with peasants gambling
canvas, oil paint 73.1 x 98.7 cm
Sotheby's (New York City) 2016-01-28 - 2016-01-29, nr. 684

Agostino Tassi
Entry of Taddeo Barberini through the Porte del Popolo 1632, Rome, in 1632
canvas, oil paint 228 x 500 cm
Rome, Banco di Roma (Rome)

He first helped Agostino Tassi with the staffage of his little-figure ceremonial paintings [14],27 after which he took over Jacob de Hase’s task as the painter of staffage figures in Claude Lorrain’s landscapes.28 Claude was one of Tassi’s pupils, after all. A few years later Andrea Sacchi (1599-1661) availed himself of Miel’s services [15], since he was a past master at painting ‘caprici e bambocciate sul gusto del pittore Pietro vander(!) detto il Bamboccio’ [capricci and bambocciate in the manner of Pietro vander (!) known as il Bamboccio].29 However, it was precisely because of these pictures that Miel later fell out with his client, who sent him packing. Miel learned the art of large-scale painting in Sacchi’s studio and between 1646 and 1656 painted several large altarpieces for Roman churches which reveal Tassi’s influence.30 Other works followed in the style of Pietro da Cortona who called on his services for the decoration of the Quirinal Palace.31

In 1659 Miel took up an appointment in Turin where, in addition to numerous other activities, he decorated the large banqueting hall in the Venaria Reale with monumental hunting scenes [16-17].32 There was no call in Turin for any Bambocciate, and his appointment as court painter, which earned him the title of Cavaliere, was certainly not attributable to his resourcefulness in devising such scenes.33 Miel does not appear to have fully renounced this pastime, however, for Baldinucci states quite explicitly, after having talked of Miel’s frescoes, that the artist continued to paint Bambocciate for members of the nobility which were in no way inferior to those of Michelangelo Cerquozzi [18].34 Jan Miel engaged in ‘high’ and ‘low’ art in equal measure, studying the sources of inspiration for both [19].35 In 1648 he was admitted to the Accademia di San Luca and in 1650 joined the Congregazione dei Virtuosi, although he never foreswore Bambocciate.36

Jan Miel and Andrea Sacchi and Filippo Gagliardi
The Celebration of the Centenary of the Jesuit Order in the Gesù in 1639, c. 1641-1642
canvas, oil paint 321 x 248 cm
Rome, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica (Rome), inv./ 1445b/ F.N. 3573

Jan Miel
Equestrian portrait of Enrichetta Adelaide di Savoia(1636-1676) and Ferdinand Maria von Bayern (1636-1679), 1658-1664
canvas, oil paint 357 x 368.5 cm
Turin, Reggia di Venaria

Jan Miel
Sine Cerere et Baccho friget Venus, dated 1645
canvas, oil paint 142.5 x 162.7 cm
lower right : J: de Miel /peint./1645
Sotheby's (New York City) 2016-05-26, nr. 52

Jan Miel
Soldiers resting near ruins in an Italianate landscape, dated 1659
canvas, oil paint 51 x 68.5 cm
lower left : Joannes Miele/ invent et fecit 1659
Sotheby's (London (England)) 2012-07-04 - 2012-07-05, nr. 217

Jan Miel
The Curea. The Royal court of Carlo Emanuele II and Francesca d'Orléans, dated 1661
canvas, oil paint 233.5 x 379 cm
lower right : Janaes Miele fecit et inv. / 1661
Turin, Museo Civico d'Arte Antica e Palazzo Madama

Whereas Baldinucci was a little reserved about Jan Miel’s Bambocciate and considered it necessary to excuse paintings of this kind, he could not commend similar work by Michelangelo Cerquozzi (1602-1660) highly enough.37 Cerquozzi’s famous patrons – and they were numerous – are all listed and reference is made to the good reputation he enjoyed outside Italy. Cerquozzi was a pupil and friend of Pieter van Laer.38 He is even said to have painted a portrait of the ‘Bent’ brothers.39 As it happens, his first teacher was also from the Low Countries, a Fleming by the name of Jacob de Hase (1575-1634), of whose work nothing is known [20].40 Passeri confirms all this but with a reproving undertone: Cerquozzi’s art could not be accorded any great esteem because he failed to portray any saints or heroes.41 He painted not only the usual low-life scenes, but also agreeable hunting and battle scenes [21-22]. In an amusing picture he depicts a performance of the Commedia dell’Arte (H. Davis Collection, London) [23].42 His still lifes, which are more Flemish than Dutch, can most readily be compared with works by Neapolitan artists [24]. Just how popular paintings by van Laer and his circle were at the time is apparent from an inventory note of 1667 which records six copies after Cerquozzi and one original.43 Unsigned pictures in the style of the Bamboccianti are still found quite frequently even now.44

Jacob de Hase
The kiss of Judas, c. 1610
canvas, oil paint 125 x 180 cm
upper left : I° DE HASE F.
Finarte Rome (Rome) 2017-11-24 - 2017-11-28, nr. 132

Michelangelo Cerquozzi
Garden party of artists in Rome, early 1640s
canvas, oil paint 97.5 x 132.5 cm
Kassel (Hessen), Museum Schloss Wilhelmshöhe, inv./ GK 554

Michelangelo Cerquozzi
Wooded landscape with hunters resting, c. 1640-1660
canvas, oil paint 131 x 95 cm
Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi, inv./ 5453

Michelangelo Cerquozzi
Rehearsal or scene from the Commedia dell'Arte, c. 1635
canvas, oil paint 58.4 x 116 cm
lower right : M [B?]CF
Sotheby's (New York City) 2019-01-30 - 2019-01-31, nr. 266

Michelangelo Cerquozzi
Youths picking Fruit, between 1640-1645
canvas, oil paint 198 x 170 cm
Madrid (Spain), Museo Nacional del Prado, inv./ 6077

Looking first at the Dutch successors of Pieter van Laer, mention must be made of the role played by Cornelis de Wael (1592-1667) [25], who in fact belonged to a different artistic circle.45 He was in Rome for a short while in 1625 and will have taken due note of the painting of genre scenes in the spirit of Pieter van Laer. As an art dealer he had a certain significance for the movement, because his stock, an inventory of which was drawn up after his death in Rome, contained a number of paintings by Dutch artists, even by van Laer, Cerquozzi and Rembrandt. He possessed no less than 50 works by a certain Frederick van Steenlant (born c. 1626), including – it was assumed – a number of Bambocciate.46

By the time Andries Both (1611/2-1642) had left Venice and arrived in Rome in 1635, 47 Pieter van Laer had already achieved several initial successes. Both soon came into contact with him and his circle, as is clear from a witness’s statement of 1637. A drawing made in Amsterdam in 1636 makes it clear that he assimilated the style and depictions of the Bamboccianti [26]. Andries’ types are a little more caricature-like than Pieter van Laer’s good-humoured strollers [27-28]. Since Both had already developed this style during his time in Venice, it must be assumed that he brought it with him from the land of Adriaen Brouwer. For that reason he cannot simply be numbered among the successors to Pieter van Laer. Rather it should be pointed out that he added a stylistic element of his own to the painting of Bambocciate. Andries left Rome with his brother Jan around 1641.

Anthony van Dyck
Double portrait of the brothers Lucas (1591-1661) and Cornelis (1592-1667) de Wael, painters at Genoa, c. 1622-1624
canvas, oil paint 120 x 101 cm
Rome, Musei Capitolini, inv./ 71

Andries Both
Distribution of food to pilgrims and beggars at a monastery gate, dated 1636
paper, black chalk 185 x 267 mm
lower left : A Both in roma 1636
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./ RP-T-1905-52

Andries Both
The palm reading woman, after 1635
canvas, oil paint 56 x 73 cm
Feltre, Museo Civico (Feltre)

Andries Both
The drunk
canvas, oil paint 56 x 72 cm
Feltre, Museo Civico (Feltre)

Michael Sweerts (1618-1664), another Fleming, was a good Catholic but not one of the ‘Bent’ fraternity. On the contrary, he was a member of the Academy and helped to collect the Dutch artists’ contributions to his institute’s coffers. 48 Nevertheless, in the six or so years he spent in Italy from 1646 to 1652 and after that as well he mostly painted genre pictures in the Bamboccio style.49 While his images of old beggars, rural folk and street urchins were neither crude nor bizarre, the Academy will nonetheless not have regarded their appearance in a series devoted to the Seven Compassions as constituting high art [30-36]. Sweerts’ paintings of artists’ studio’s with their lateral incidence of very bright light, which is reminiscent of Caravaggio, are especially attractive [30]. He has been compared with the brothers Le Nain, which is justifiable in that both artists kept genuine Bambocciate at arm’s length. As Roberto Longhi has shown, Sweerts also considered himself a match for the ‘Roman’ Poussin.50 And since we’re talking of French painters, it is perhaps appropriate to recall Sébastien Bourdon, who was in Rome while Pieter van Laer was still alive and thought as much of the Dutchman’s art as he did that of the works of the great Italians he copied.51

Michael Sweerts
Drawing Academy, c. 1655
canvas, oil paint 76.5 x 109.5 cm
Haarlem, Frans Halsmuseum, inv./ 270

Michael Sweerts
Feeding the hungry (one of the seven acts of merxcy), c. 1646-1649
canvas, oil paint 75 x 99 cm
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./ SK-A-2845

Michael Sweerts
Refreshing the thirsty (one of the seven acts of mercy), c. 1646-1649
canvas, oil paint 72 x 97.5 cm
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./ SK-A- 2846

Michael Sweerts
The sheltering of strangers (one of the seven acts of mercy), c. 1646-1649
canvas, oil paint 73.4 x 99 cm
New York City/Genève/Paris, UNICEF

Michael Sweerts
Clothing the naked (one of the seven works of mercy), c. 1646-1649
canvas, oil paint 74 x 99 cm
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./ SK-A- 2847

Michael Sweerts
Visiting the sick (one of the seven acts of mercy), c. 1646-1649
canvas, oil paint 75 x 99 cm
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./ SK-A-2848

Michael Sweerts
Ministering to prisoners ( one of the seven acts of mercy), c. 1646-2649
canvas, oil paint 73.7 x 96.5 cm
Private collection

Michael Sweerts
Burying the dead (one of the seven acts of mercy), ca. 1646-1649
canvas, oil paint 74 x 99.1 cm
Hartford (Connecticut), The Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, inv./ 1941.595

Jan van Ossenbeeck
The annunciation to the shepherds, 1644 dated
panel, oil paint 46 x 59 cm
center right : J. ossenbeeck 1644
Dorotheum (Vienna (city)) 2014-12-10, nr. 34

The works of Jan van Ossenbeeck (c. 1624-1674) are often confused with paintings by Pieter van Laer, although Ossenbeeck, like Sweerts, arrived in Rome too late to meet Il Bamboccio [37]. He painted charming, light-hearted pictures of everyday life which found great favour at the imperial court in Vienna. Van Laer would have been ill advised to introduce himself there with a work of this kind, however, as the court had not the slightest interest in pictures of beggars.52

Dirck Helmbreeker (1633-1696) from Haarlem was a worthy successor to Jan Miel. He painted altarpieces, which are admittedly not so highly regarded today [38], as well as numerous Bambocciate, which Baldinucci saw in Italian collections and described in friendly terms.53 A few of them are still familiar to us and they are very commendable in view of their late emergence – one picture in Lucca is dated 1681 [39].54 While we can now barely imagine any allegorical Bambocciat a, Helmbreeker – who was in Italy four times – must nonetheless have produced some [40]. 55 He survived Jan Miel by 30 years and was still supplying the Turin court with Bambocciate in the 1680s and 90s.56 If the term ‘late travellers to Italy’ is not interpreted too narrowly, one or other of their number, such as Thomas Wijck, Karel Dujardin, Johannes Lingelbach and Barend Graet, can be counted among the followers of Pieter van Laer. In Brussels there is a hunting scene dated 1674 by the comparatively unknown Jacob (Giacomo) van Staverden (1656[?]-after 1716) which must have been inspired by Bamboccio [41]. Christian Reder (1656/61-1729) from Leipzig also painted scenes of this kind amongst others [42].57

Dirck Helmbreeker
The conversion of Saint Julian, 1695
canvas, oil paint 188 x 126 cm
Rome, San Giuliano dei Fiamminghi

Michelangelo Cerquozzi
The trough
copper, oil paint 51 x 45 cm
Rome, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica (Rome), inv./ 1021

Dirck Helmbreeker
Landscape with peasants harvesting grapes, 1680s
canvas, oil paint 61.2 x 98.5 cm
Sotheby's (London (England)) 2017-12-06 - 2017-12-07, nr. 173

Christian Reder
Stable with horses and sheep, c. 1664
canvas, oil paint 35 x 44.5 cm
Rome, Galleria Doria Pamphilj, inv./ PC 469

Jacob van Staverden
Return from the hunt, dated 1674
canvas, oil paint 66 x 50.5 cm
lower left : J v Staveren fec. 1674
Brussels, Koninklijke Musea voor Schone Kunsten van België, inv./ 4152

One should not imagine the rejection of Bambocciate by Rome’s Academy painters as being inspired purely by petty, selfish motives. To all intents and purposes the Bambocciate and Italian Baroque paintings represented completely separate worlds. With the sole exception of Michelangelo Cerquozzi there was no other Italian painter who fully embraced the artistic style of the Bambocciate, which only serves to underline once again just how isolated the colony of Dutch artists was in Rome. When Salvator Rosa (1615-1673) 58 came to the city in 1635, he painted small figures for dealers – creations di buon gusto – but they were placed in unattractive everyday scenes, which he later came to satirise himself [43]. So this excursion into the realm of Bambocciate was nothing for him to boast about. Jacques Courtois (1621-1676) met Pieter van Laer in Rome. But under the influence of Michelangelo Cerquozzi he soon devoted his attention entirely to the painting of battle scenes, as a consequence of which the specifically Dutch elements in Pieter van Laer’s style fell by the wayside [44].59

In Rome the official style of painting reigned supreme. Even the Bambocciate of Dutch artists such as Lingelbach and Helmbreker gradually came to assume a tranquil, classical appearance. Only one artist, who owed his rediscovery to the stylistic analysis and critical endeavours of Roberto Longhi, continued Dutch-style genre painting for a while, although he cannot be counted among the direct imitators of Pieter van Laer. He was a pupil of Rembrandt’s from Denmark, Eberhard Keil (1624-1687), whose first name was Italianised by mistake into (Monsù) Bernardo. Baldinucci reported at length on his life, and everything that he knew about Rembrandt he gleaned from ‘Keilho’, as he was called.60 Having completed the first part of his apprenticeship under Morten van Steenwinckel (1595-1646) in Denmark,61 Keil continued his training from 1642 to 1644 under Rembrandt. In 1651 he set off for Italy, travelling via Venice, Bergamo and Milan, where he stayed for a number of years, before moving on to Rome.62 He arrived in the city in 1656 and lived there until his death. This ‘Rembrandt pupil’ was so skilful in adapting to his new surroundings that his paintings were attributed in the past to Antonio Amorosi, an artist from Northern Italy. In the meantime Longhi, having undertaken a meticulous examination of Voss’s reconstruction of Amorosi’s oeuvre, 63 has come to the conclusion that a group of works which date to an earlier period should be excluded from it and, for reasons set out in his essay, attributed to Keil.64 This consequently renders obsolete the old attributions in Danish collections, such as Evening Visit to the Sculptor (Copenhagen) [45], which was mentioned in an inventory in 1674, and similar pictures in the Honthorst style.65 The ‘newborn’ Keil can be seen as a representative of the ‘ pittura popularesca italiana’ with a tangible element of Haarlem-style painting; Longhi describes him as ‘un Frans Hals mancato’ [a flawed Frans Hals]. To that extent his pictures can be counted among the successors of the Bambocciate, which ultimately had their origins in Haarlem painting and not in Rembrandt’s Amsterdam. They are broad genre images, dashed off rather than carefully finished, completely non-classical and non-academic in character. For that reason they were soon disdained and forgotten (fig. 15/43) [46-49].

Salvator Rosa
Landscape with travellers, c. 1638-1639
canvas, oil paint 143.5 x 170.2 cm
lower left : Salv. re
San Francisco, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, inv./ 1987.10

Jacques Courtois
Cavalry Battle, 1650s
canvas, oil paint ? x ? cm
Rome, Musei Vaticani, inv./ MV_40442_0_0

attributed to Adam de Coster
Two sculptors at night : François Du Quesnoy (1597-1643) and Georg Petel (1601/1602-1633/1634), c. 1622
canvas, oil paint 114 x 95 cm
Copenhagen, SMK - National Gallery of Denmark, inv./ KMSsp810

attributed to Bernhard Keil
Girl Teasing a Boy, between 1650-1660
canvas, oil paint 59 x 72 cm
The Hague, Koninklijk Kabinet van Schilderijen Mauritshuis, inv./ 825

Bernhard Keil
A girl and a boy with a brazier, c. 1655-1660
canvas, oil paint 77 x 131 cm
Copenhagen, SMK - National Gallery of Denmark, inv./ KMS4472

Bernhard Keil
Young boy selling kindling wood
canvas, oil paint 95.9 x 133 cm
Boston (Massachusetts), Museum of Fine Arts Boston, inv./ 39.805

Bernhard Keil
Young boy selling vegetables
canvas, oil paint 95.9 x 133 cm
Boston (Massachusetts), Museum of Fine Arts Boston, inv./ 39.805

What is left of the work of Antonio Amorosi (1660-1738) certainly justifies Leone Pascoli’s remark to the effect that he renounced the heroic style in favour of burlesque genre paintings [50].66 Amorosi’s Bambocciate are in keeping with the Rococo period and for that reason are painted in a less crude and chaotic manner than 17th century low-life scenes [51].

In Northern Italy the Dutch popular style can be discovered in a number of minor masters, but its impact should not be considered particularly direct or strong. 67 In Genoa there were certain lingering remains of the Bamboccio style in the work of Antonio Travi (1608-1665), although the Netherlandish nuances in landscape painting were probably passed on to him by Flemings such as Cornelis de Wael and Goffredo Wals [52-53].68 The chiaroscuro painting of Giuseppe Maria Crespi (1665-1747) from Bologna, by contrast, had less to do with Rembrandt and more with Guercino and Mattia Petri [54].69 His popular scenes are also reminiscent of Venetian and Flemish-Dutch models, although there is never the slightest doubt about their Italian character [55].

Antonio Amorosi
Roman Vagabond, in 1710
canvas, oil paint 87 x 67 cm
Prague, Národní Galerie v Praze, inv./ O 2574

Antonio Amorosi
The violist and the water vendor, c. 1720
canvas, oil paint 36 x 46 cm
center : AA
Private collection

Antonio Travi
Landscapes with fishermen and ruins
canvas, oil paint 124 x 112 cm
Genua, Galleria di Palazzo Bianco, inv./ PB 1693

Antonio Travi
Pastoral scene
canvas, oil paint 124 x 163 cm
Private collection

Giuseppe Maria Crespi
A Fair with tooth pullers, c. 1715-1720
canvas, oil paint 76 x 87.5 cm
Milaan, Pinacoteca di Brera, inv./ 2140

Giuseppe Maria Crespi
Self-portrait of Giuseppe Crespi (1665-1747), c. 1700-1705
canvas, oil paint 69 x 49 cm
Sint-Petersburg (Russia), Hermitage

The Feast of St. Pancrasl by Pietro Domenico Oliviero I (1679-1754) in Turin, painted in 1725, can be seen as a mixture of the Jan Brueghel school and Cerquozzi [56].70 Giuseppe Gambarini (1680-1725) from Bologna continued the tradition of Crespi’s genre pictures, the Flemish elements being more prominent in his works than in those of Crespi [57-58]. The genre images produced by Antonio Cifrondi (1657-1730)71 are strikingly Dutch without it being possible to establish any connecting element [59]. He travelled a great deal – he spent some time in Turin and Grenoble but was otherwise in France – and, since his portraits also have a French look about them, the possibility cannot be excluded that he came to be known in France for his Dutch genre paintings.

Pietro Domenico Oliviero (I)
Feast of Saint Pancras, c. 1724-1725
canvas, oil paint 217 x 266 cm
Turin, Museo Civico d'Arte Antica e Palazzo Madama, inv./ 0548/D

Giuseppe Gambarini
Allegory of the Winter, c. 1721-1725
canvas, oil paint 47 x 70 cm
Bologna, Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna, inv./ 6374

Giuseppe Gambarini
Allegory of the summer, c. 1721-1725
canvas, oil paint 47 x 70 cm
Bologna, Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna, inv./ 6373

Antonio Cifrondi
Old man with hourglass, c. 1717
canvas, oil paint 118.5 x 92.5 cm
Brescia, Pinacoteca Tosio Martinengo, inv./ 664

Faustino Bocchi
The Killjoy
canvas, oil paint 41 x 64.8 cm
Brescia, Pinacoteca Tosio Martinengo, inv./ 194

A special kind of Bambocciate painter is Faustino Bocchi (1659-1741) from Brescia, who later specialised in bizarre scenes featuring dwarfs and pygmies, which were more Flemish than Dutch-inspired [60].72 His teacher was also a Fleming – an obscure painter of battle scenes by the name of Angelo Everardi (Esseradts) (1647-1678), who is known to have painted a biblical scene [61].73 In Venice the Bambocciate tradition was continued in a modest way by Matteo Ghidoni (c. 1626-1689) [62].74

There is no firm biographical evidence for the information available on the two remaining artists who deserve to be mentioned in this context. Giacomo Francesco Cipper (1664-1736), called Il Todeschini, was probably a Southern German or Austrian active in Northern Italy, possibly in Bologna [63].75 In his genre paintings he incorporates aspects reminiscent of Frans Hals, the pseudo-van de Venne, Jan Baptist Weenix and many others but without distancing himself from the painters in Brescia and Venice. His pictures are encountered under some of the most obscure Dutch and Italian names [64].76 He may have exerted an influence on Giacomo Ceruti (1698-1767), who was active a little later. Pieter van Laer’s Bambocciate assume a certain monumentality in his work [65-66]. Ceruti’s paintings have a very close affinity with the works of the brothers Le Nain. Like the Dutchmen he has a keen eye for the painterly treatment of every detail in a picture, regardless of whether it is a still life or a piece of cloth. On the other hand, he produced genre pictures in the Venetian style that were previously attributed to Pietro Longhi and Antonio Amorosi, portraits in the style of Giambattista Piazzetta and altarpieces in the manner of Carlo Carloni and Fra Vittore Ghislandi (Galgario).77

possibly Giovanni Mauro della Rovere or Angelo Everardi
Baptism of Christ, late 16th or early 17th century
canvas, oil paint 142 x 109.5 cm
Milaan, Castello Sforzesco, inv./ 817

Matteo Ghidoni
Dinner at the tavern, after 1674
canvas, oil paint 58 x 76 cm
Rovigo, Pinacoteca dei Concordi, inv./ 459

Giacomo Francesco Cipper
Scene in the Kitchen, c. 1720
canvas, oil paint 158 x 200 cm
Sint-Petersburg (Russia), Hermitage, inv./ ГЭ-5544

Giacomo Francesco Cipper
panel, oil paint 52 x 75 cm
on the back : 1590
(New York City) 1938-05-12, nr. 5

Giacomo Ceruti
Women working on pillow lace, c. 1720-1730
canvas, oil paint 150 x 200 cm
Private collection

Giacomo Ceruti
Two beggars
? x ? cm
Brescia, Pinacoteca Tosio Martinengo


1 [Gerson 1942/1983] On Pieter van Laer’s oeuvre: Hoogewerff 1932A/B, Hoogewerff 1933A/B. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Janeck 1968.

2 [Gerson 1942/1983] Passeri/Hess 1678/1934, p. 72. In his Satires, Salvator Rosa follows Passeri’s sharp condemnation of the Bambocciate (Hess 1928, p. 34). [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Salvator Rosa’s criticism: Castiglione 2014-2015.

3 [Gerson 1942/1983] Baldinucci 1681/1808, vol. 1 (vol. 2 of the ‘Opere’), p. 78. See however for Baldinucci’s opinion about Jan Miel and Cerquozzi: p. 156-157.

4 [Gerson 1942/1983] Gerson 1942/1983, p. 65.

5 [Gerson 19821983] Gerson 1942/1983, p. 73.

6 [Gerson 1942/1983] Sandrart/Peltzer 1675/1925, p. 183-184. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] In Pieter van Laer .

7 [Gerson 1942/1983] Bertolotti 1880, p. 133. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] For a careful evaluation of the trial and the estimates of the witnesses involved see Cavazzini 2008B, p. 148. For the value of Bambocciate on the Roman art market see furthermore Spear 2010, p. 94-95.

8 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Part of the collection of Gaspar Roomer passed on to Jan (died 1671) and Ferdinand (died 1688) van den Eynde or Vandeneynden (Ruotolo 1982, esp. p. 23 note 45), and when in the early 18th century Giovanna Vandeneynden married Giuliano Colonna, paintings were moved from Naples to Rome. However, there is no proof that Gasper Roomer or Jan and Ferdinand Vandeneynden owned autograph works by Pieter van Laer and Jan Miel. The descriptions of the Bambocciate listed in the inventory of the Ferdinand Vandeneynden (1688) are often rather generic and it is possible that Vandeneynden owned (workshop?) derivations of paintings by both masters (Porzio/Van der Sman 2018, p. 69 (no. 105), p. 74 (no. 202), 76 (no. 230)

9 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] In particular ‘Rubens, Gris Spagnuolo, Gherardo, Enrico, Teodoro’ (Rubens, Ribera, Honthorst, Ter Brugghen and Baburen), Giustiniani 1617-1618/1981, p. 44.

10 [Gerson 1942/1983] Bottari/Ticozzi 1822-1825, vol. 6, p. 125-127; Longhi 1927, p. 110-111; compare § 2.1, above.

11 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Pieter van Laer’s year and place of death are unknown. In her second will, dated 9 October 1654, his sister Barbara Bodding declares that she has lost any trace of her brother since twelve years (Janeck 1968, p. 18).

12 [Gerson 1942/1983] Houbraken 1718-1721, vol. 1, p. 360-363.

13 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On the Bamboccianti: Levine/Mai 1991; Briganti/Laureati/Trezzani 1983.

14 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Unless one accepts the identification with the so-called ‘Maestro dell’Incredulità di San Tommaso’. See Porzio 2015. A recent archival discovery by Francesca Curti considering the genesis of two altarpieces in the Cathedral of Rieti sheds new light on this complex issue. Both works, which some scholars reckon among the late works by the so-called ‘Maestro dell’Incredulità di San Tommaso’ (Porzio 2011, p. 402), are recorded as being executed by Bartolomeo Mandozzi (Leonessa, Rieti 1600-after 1644 Rome).

15 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] See § 2.3, note 7 .

16 [Gerson 1942/1983] Hoet 1752, vol. 1, p. 15. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Wolf was his Bent name. Probably wrongly identified by Hoogewerff 1942 and Gerson with the collector Reinier de Wolff (vander Wolf) from Rotterdam. Perhaps identical to the lower Rhine or Flemish painter Reynir Heuckelum, who decorated the walls of Schloss Raesfeld with portraits (not preserved) in the second half of the 17th century (Thieme/Becker 1907-1950, vol. 17 [ 1924), p. 4).

17 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] The documentary evidence of Roelant’s life is very sparse. Schrevelius 1648, p. 384, indicates that Roeland died in Genoa ‘in the blossom of his life’ , but there is no proof that this happened in 1635, as suggested by Hoogewerff 1932, p. 6.

18 [Gerson 1942/1983] Is also called P. Boddink. A drawing in the collection Dr. A. Welcker in Amsterdam (exhibited 1934, no. 17). A copy bearing the date 1625 in Teyler’s Museum, Haarlem. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] The drawing formerly in the collection of Dr. Welcker is now in the Print Room of Leiden University (RKDimages 294742) and is an undisputed work by to Pieter van Laer. His brother Roeland made a copy of this drawing, which is signed and dated ‘orlando Bodding In 1625’ (Plomp 1997, p. 220. no. 235). In 1980 a signature of Roeland van Laer was recognized in a burlesque painting that was acquired by the Museo di Roma (Kren 1980). It is the only work that can be firmly attributed to the master. According to Loredana Lorizzo, the Self-Portrait with Magic Scene (Leiden Collection, RKDimages 244957), traditionally given to Pieter van Laer on the basis of the signature (‘P.V. Laer’), can also be attributed to his brother Roeland (Lorizzo 2015B, p. 63).

19 [Gerson 1942/1983] Resting warrior, Museum Bredius in The Hague, dated 1626 [fig. 44]. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Illustated here as fig. 10.

20 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Cornelis de Bie (De Bie 1662, p. 252) seems to suggest that Bramer’s paintings were to be found across the Italian peninsula. There is no evidence that the artist visited these cities.

21 [Gerson/1983] De Bie 1662, p. 252. About de De Roomer collection, see p. 174 [§ 3.1] [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Porzio/Van der Sman 2018-2019, p. 52, 61 note 15.

22 [Gerson 1942/1983] Wichmann 1923, p. 5. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Archival documents from 1637 and 1638 make clear that Bramer stayed in Delft during these years, making a second trip to Italy unlikely (Huys Janssen 1994A, p. 17-18).

23 [Gerson 1942/1983] The Soldiers Gambling in Dulwich Picture Gallery, no. 216, in particular, is closely related to Bramer.

24 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Salvator Rosa’s early paintings show no influence of Rembrandt or Lievens, but a small picture of Three travelling shepherds (Volpi 2014, p. 413, no. 61, RKDimages 296087) is clearly inspired by works by Jan Both and Pieter van Laer.

25 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] See Kren 1978, vol. 1, p. 13-16. According to Filippo Baldinucci Miel was a student of Seghers in Antwerp, while Giambattista Passeri identified Anthony van Dyck as Miel’s teacher. Kren finds it more likely that Miel was a student of Seghers. However, Miel’s name is absent from the Liggeren, and ‘the time, place and master responsible for Miel’s training remain to be established’ (Ibid., p. 15-16).

26 [Gerson 1942/1983] Hoogewerff 1933A, p. 112, Hoogewerff 1933B, 254. Passeri/Hess 1678/1934, p. 221: after working with van Dyck, ‘se diede alla totale imitatione de quello stile (des Bamboccio) … con un’ applauso universale’ [he devoted himself to the complete imitation of his [van Laer’s] style ... with universal acclaim].

27 [Gerson 1942/1983] It is surmised, that the staffage on The Entry of Don Taddeo Barberini through the Porta del Popolo (the second painting of the series for the Barberini, created 1630-1631) is by Jan Miel. The compositional scheme is to my mind very reminiscent of the Processions by D. van Alsloot in Madrid, London (V & A), Turin and Antwerp (of 1616). See also Hess 1935, p. 29, ill. XXIXa.

28 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Gerson assumed that Jan Miel painted the figures in three paintings by Claude in the Louvre, Campo Vaccino, Harbour at Sunset and Village Festival (Gerson 1942/1983, p. 75-76). However, the figures in these pictures are not characteristic for Jan Miel.

29 [Gerson 1942/1983] Hess also presumes that Jan Miel collaborated in Sacchi’s Celebration of the Centenary of the Jesuit Order in the Gesù in 1639 which was made after Tassi’s example. Posse 1925, p. 9-10 doesn’t mention anything about this. However, in this respect he points to a passage in Baldinucci, who mentions, that Sacchi later, between 1655-1659, painted a festive decoration for the Barberini, on which Jan Miel possibly collaborated. But how derisive Sacchi, the classicist painter, was thinking around this time (and probably always!) about the Bamboccianti, we can deduct from Sacchi’s correspondence of 1651 with Francesco Albani, which has been published by Carlo Cesare Malvasia (Malvasia 1678, vol. 2, p. 267-268). See Posse 1925, p. 119-121.

30 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] For Miel’s activity as a history painter in Rome: Kren 1978, vol. 1, p. 112-124.

31 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Godart 2011.

32 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] For an overview of Miel’s works in public buildings and collections in Piedmont: Meijer/Sluiter/Squellati Brizio 2011, vol. 2, p. 93-112.

33 [Gerson 1942/1983] Hess 1932.

34 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Baldinucci 1845-1847/1974-1975, vol. 5, p. 110-116. On Miel’s Bambocciate: Bodart 1970, vol. 1, p. 389-400; Kren 1978, vol. 1, p. 57-111, 182-226; Trezzani in Briganti/Laureati/Trezzani 1983, p. 90-131.

35 [Gerson 1942/1983] In his will of 1654 Jan Miel beqeathed his copies after Bamboccio, Raphael, Romano and others to his former ‘teacher’ Agostino (Tassi). Bertolotti 1880, p. 183. The decorative Sine Cerere et Baccho friget Venus in the Moltke auction of June 1rst 1931, no. 84, is painted completely in the style of Luca Giordano.

36 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019 ] Kren 1978, vol. 1, p. 23.

37 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Baldinucci 1845-1847/1974-1975, vol. 4, p. 512-524.

38 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Cerquozzi: Laureati in Briganti/Laureati/Trezzani 1983, p. 132-193.

39 [Gerson 1942/1983] Hoet 1752, vol. 1, p. 155, 367. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] This ‘very important piece, representing a company or Bent of painters, consisting in portraits of them all, by Michaël Angelo de la Bataille’, formerly in the collections of Adriaen Paets (until 1713) and Cornelis Wittert (until 1731), is untraced. As far as we know, Cerquozzi didn’t join the Bent, but during most part of his career, up to 1653, Cerquozzi constantly shared lodgings with artists from Northern Europe (Laureati in Briganti/Laureati/Trezzani 1983, p. 134).

40 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Jacob de Hase headed one of the largest workshops in early 17th-century Rome. Cerquozzi is registered in De Hase’s workshop with the surname of his mother, Lucia Vassalli, in 1620 and 1621 (Pomponi 2011, p. 138). In 1974, Didier Bodart identified a monumental Taking of Christ by De Hase (illustrated here as fig. 20), clearly inspired by Caravaggio’s painting with the same theme (Bodart 1974).

41 [Gerson 1942/1983] Baldinucci 1808-1812, vol. 12, p. 73; Passeri/Hess 1687/1934, p. 283.

42 [Gerson 1942/1983] Juynboll 1934, p. 166.

43 [Gerson 1942/1983] Inventory of Cornelis de Wael in Rome (Vaes 1925, p. 181).

44 [Gerson 1942/1983] Who is e.g. this Camerati, from whom De Monconys acquired a ‘Bamboche’ in Florence in 1664? (De Montconys 1665-1666, p. 481).

45 ]Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Lucas and Cornelis de Wael: Stoesser 2018.

46 [Gerson 1942/1983] Vaes 1925, p. 152, 178.

47 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Waddingham supposes that Andries was already in Rome in 1633 (Waddingham 1964, p. 18). The earliest evidence to document his presence in Rome is a Dutch notarial act from early 1637 which specifies that the painter was living in Via Margutta in 1635 (Hoogewerff 1952, p. 88). Whether Andries travelled to Rome via Venice is uncertain, even if a drawing kept in the Leiden Printroom is accompanied by a handwritten note ‘Andrea Bot fe/Venetsia 1632’ (Ibid., p. 16; RKDimages 295863). See also § 3.3, note 14.

48 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Sweerts and the academy in Rome: Yeager Crasselt 2015.

49 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On his Bambocciate: Bodart 1970, vol. 1, p. 419-432; Kultzen 1996, p. 25 ff.

50 [Gerson 1942/1983] Longhi 1934.

51 [Gerson 1942/1893] Gerson 1942/1983, p. 81

52 [Gerson 1942/1983] Gerson 1942/1983, p. 282 and 284. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Gerson/Van Leeuwen et al. 2017/18 , passim.

53 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] For Baldinucci’s account of Helmbreeker’s life: Baldinucci 1845-1847/1974-1975, vol. 5, p. 504-525. For his Bambocciate: Laureati in Briganti/Laureati/Trezzani 1983, p. 340-349.

54 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Hoogewerff 1913, p. 47, 54 no. 6, ill.; Briganti/Laureati/Trezzani 1983, p. 344 notes 15, 23. The signature and date mentioned by Hoogewerff Teodorus fecit 1681 are no longer visible; the painting is now generally accepted as a work by Cerquozzi.

55 [Gerson 942/1983] Hoogewerff 1913.

56 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Meijer in Meijer/Sluiter/Squellati Brizio 2011, vol. 1, p. 16. Of the two canvases that Helmbreeker is known to have painted in Turin in 1682 (Baldinucci 1845-1847/1974-1975, vol. 5, p. 509), one is currently in a private collection (Meijer/Sluiter/Squellati Brizio 2011, vol. 1, ill. on p. 15).

57 [Gerson 1942/1983] Hoogewerff 1933B, p. 259. For other followers of Pieter van Laer, see Gerson 1942/1983, p. 16.

58 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Rosa: Volpi 2014.

59 [Gerson 1942/1983] See for Italian genre painting for example Geiger 1916. Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On the economic aspects of Jacques Courtois’s career: Spear 2010, p. 96-97.

60 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] See now Heimburger 1988.

61 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Steenwinckel: Gerson/Van Leeuwen/Roding et al. 2015, § 3.5b and passim.

62 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019 Baldinucci (Baldinucci 1845-1847/1974-1975, vol. 5, p. 365-374) provides an exceptionally detailed description of Keil’s career. For Keil’s Roman addresses: Heimburger 1988, appendix I.

63 [Gerson 1942/1983] Which does not diminish his achievement of being the first to compiling this group: Voss 1910, Voss 1912; Voss 1924, p. 636-638.

64 [Gerson 1942/1983] Longhi 1937, Longhi 1938. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] A critical assessment of Longhi’s writings on genre painting is provided by Morandotti 2017.

65 [Gerson 1942/1983] V. Thorlacius-Ussing sticks to these old attributions and furthermore mentions an altarpiece in the Sta. Maria sopra Minerva, which remained unknown to me (Thorlacius-Ussing 1935, p. 124-126), as well as the paintings in Mainz (Michel 1890, p. 168). The artist’s portrait with the annotation in verso, illustrated by Thorlacius-Ussing, also fits poorly in Longhi’s construction. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] The painting of the sculptors in Copenhagen (fig. 45) is now generally attributed to Adam de Coster. Bernard Keil's painting of Saint Dominic in the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome was destroyed in the 19th century (Heimburger 1988, p. 105, note 58).

66 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Amorosi: Maggini et al. 1996.

67 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] For a comprehensive overview of the history of Italian genre painting in different regions and its collecting: Porzio 1998-1999 . For a historiography of genre painting in Italy: Wind 1991 . Two important Italian genre painters that Gerson does not mention in this context are the Ligurian Alessandro Magnasco (1667-1749) and Pietro Bellotti (1627-1700) from Lombardy. More about the first: Camesasca/Bona Castellotti 1996 ; the latter: Orlando 2007 .

68 [Gerson 1942/1983] Delogu 1931A, ill. 37. Grosso 1938. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Travi: Zanelli 2001.

69 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Crespi: Spike 1986.

70 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Olivieri, and genre painting in Piemonte: Cifani/Monetti 1993, esp. vol. 1, p. 129-195. Oliviero’s indebtness to Pieter van Laer and his followers is already stressed by Lanzi 1808/1974, vol. 3, p. 257.

71 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Cifrondi: Ravelli 2008 and Maddaluno 2008.

72 [Gerson 1942/1983] Calabi 1935; Delogu 1931A, ill. 319-320. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Bocchi: Olivari 1990.

73 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Everardi: Baroncelli 1965. Today, no works are attributed to Everardi, but in the past, an altarpiece in the San Giovanni Evangelista in Brescia and a painting in the Castello Sforzesco were thought to be by him (now as circle of Giovanni Mauro della Rovere), illustrated here as fig. 61.

74 [Gerson 1942/1983] Juynboll 1934, p. 166.

75 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Cipper: Proni 1994 and Bertrand 2005.

76 [Gerson 1942/1983] A recent example is The Concert in the Auction H.K. Weele et al. (New York) of 12 May 1938, lot 5 as Pseudo-van de Venne. Th. von Frimmel attributed the same painting to Daniel Dumonstier; Frimmel 1912. For Todeschini: Arslan 1933 and Porcella 1934.

77 [Gerson 1942/1983] Particularly beautiful pictures in the collection Conte Selvadego in the Castello di Padernello [Borgo San Giacomo, Brescia]. Recent literature with illustrations: Delogu 1931B; Fiocco 1936; Scrinzi 1935; Delogu 1931A, p. 195-210. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] More about Ceruti: Porzio 1998-1999, especially the contributions of F. Frangi on the collection of Padernello . On genre painting in Venice: Spike 1986, esp. p. 29-34, and the contributions of C. Geddo in Porzio 1998-1999.

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