Gerson Digital : Italy


3.5 Other Art Centres in Northern Italy in Relation to Netherlandish Art

Genoa was very much in the hands of the Flemings.1 Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641)2 and Cornelis de Wael (1592-1667) had put an end to the Mannerist style and Peter Paul Rubens had painted a series of outstanding portraits in 1607/8,3 to say nothing of de Wael’s ‘Cenacolo dei pittori fiammenghi’ [circle of Flemish painters] (Jan Roos I [1591-1638],4 Vincent Malo I [1602/06-1644],5 Peeter Boel [1622-1674]6 inter alia).7 Dutch artists, by contrast, paid no more than fleeting visits to the city.8 The only Dutchman to engage in any significant activity there was Pieter Mulier II, known as Tempesta (1637-1701) [1].9 However, he came to Italy when he was still a young man and never set foot outside the country again. Moreover, his style is Italian through and through. He may have derived some inspiration from Poussin and Dughet in Rome, where he spent the second half of the 1660s.10 His very effective storms at sea were imitated by many Northern Italian painters in the 18th century. Marco Ricci, of whom we spoke a moment ago, also owed a great deal to Mulier, and even Francesco Guardi (1712-1792), under whose name a work by Tempesta was once published, was subject to his influence [2].11 Rinaldo della Montagna (died 1661), who allegedly hailed from Holland (and may have been called van Bergen?), came to work with him, as did Jan van Bunnick (1654-1627) [3].

Pieter Mulier (II)
Shipping in a storm off a rocky coast
canvas, oil paint 100.5 x 146.5 cm
Sint-Petersburg (Russia), Hermitage, inv./ ГЭ-2084

Francesco Guardi
canvas, oil paint 51 x 85 cm
Bassano, Bortolotto collection

Jan van Bunnick
Rocky landscape with waterfall, dated 1712
canvas, oil paint 24.5 x 35.5 cm
lower right : J.V.B.F.c 1712
Utrecht (city), Centraal Museum, inv./ 55

Carlo Antonio Tavella
Seascape, c. 1720
canvas, oil paint 130 x 178 cm
Private collection

Orazio Grevenbroeck
Storm at the coast
panel, oil paint 20.5 x 34.4 cm
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, inv./ Gemäldegalerie, 1787

Carlo Antonio Tavella (1667-1738) from Milan was a pupil of Tempesta, to whose style he adhered during the many years he spent working in Genoa [4].12 Tavella was an admirer of Claude’s atmospheric paintings and reportedly also studied under a certain Giovanni Grümbroech. Grümbroech is undoubtedly Jan van Grevenbroeck I who was in Rome in 1667-1669 and was perhaps the father of Orazio Grevenbroeck [5], who allegedly hailed from Milan and later moved to Paris.13 Paintings attributed to the eldest of the Grevenbroecks reveal the rather insipid style of the Saftleven school, traces of which are also to be found in Venice in the works of Marco Ricci. Tavella took over very little from Grevenbroeck, however, and so this thin thread in the Dutch tradition peters out here.

The works Bernardo Strozzi (1581-1644) produced in Genoa have no connection with Dutch art. Links can be established with Rubens and Jordaens, but we cannot go into them here. The situation is different in respect of Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (1616-1670), particularly if we consider his painterly approach to printmaking from the end of the 1650s.14 His paintings have nothing whatsoever to do with Dutch art, however. The best example of his ‘Dutch style’ are the etched Oriential head studies (B. 48-56, 32-47) which imitate the chiaroscuro and tonality of Rembrandt and Lievens. In many works he adopts Lievens’ technique, especially in leaving a light background around the figures, thereby making them stand out more [6-10].15 This painterly effect is further enhanced in the monotypes. The Raising of Lazarus as a monotype and etching [11-12] are inspired more by Lievens than by Rembrandt, since with Lievens some Flemish elements always come into play which help to achieve greater visual effect. Castiglione maintained the tonality and sunlight we are familiar with from Berchem’s drawings in his animal and landscape drawings [13]. The artist travelled a lot in Italy – he was in Venice, Bologna, Naples and Rome – before ending his days as court painter in Mantua. So there were sufficient opportunities for him to come into contact the Dutch art. On the other hand, his pastoral scenes were greatly admired, especially in France, until well into the 18th century (by Boucher and Fragonard) so that the Berchem style was also passed on in France through his mediation and transformation.

Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione
Diogenes searching for an honest man, 1645-1647
paper, etching (printing process), 2nd state 217 x 302 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./ RP-P-OB-12.199

Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione
Head of an old man with a long beard, late 1640s
paper, etching (printing process), 2nd state 182 x 152 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./ RP-P-OB-12.189

after Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione
Head of an old man, 18th century
paper, red chalk 242 x 185 mm
Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv./ 23000

Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione
Head of a man with turban, late 1640s
paper, etching (printing process), 3rd state 181 x 150 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./ RP-P-OB-12.190

Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione
Portrait of a man, possibly Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), c. 1645-1650
paper, etching (printing process), 3rd state 188 x 137 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./ RP-P-OB-12.192

Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione
The raising of Lazarus, 1647-1651
paper, etching (printing process) 229 x 318 mm
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./ RP-P-OB-12.196

Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione
The raising of Lazarus, 1647-1651
paper 205 x 279 mm
Vienna, Graphische Sammlung Albertina

Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione
A shepherd with his cattle and a woman with two children, 1630s
paper, oil paint, gouache (paint) 276 x 413 mm
Christie's (Paris) 2015-03-25, nr. 34

Salvatore Castiglione
Raising of Lazarus, dated 1645
paper, etching (printing process) 114 x 215 mm
lower left : Salvatore*Cast[iglione]*Genov[a]*1645
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./ RP-P-OB-35.811

His activity also meant a great deal for Genoa. His brother, Salvatore Castiglione (1620-after 1676), followed in his footsteps with an etching The Raising of Lazarus in 1645 [14], the sole work by the artist of which we have any knowledge.16 The painterly style of his models underwent a bizarre transformation, however, which in turn made a great impression on German imitators of Rembrandt such as Trautmann.17

The Genoese animal landscapists – and those from Milan too – were more Flemish-oriented from Strozzi’s time onwards, beginning with Sinibaldo Scorza (1589-1631) [15],18 Antonio Travi (1608-1665) [16]19 and Vincenzo Campi (1530/6-1591) [17]20 right on up to Jan Roos I from Antwerp (1591-1636) [18]21 and Antonio Maria Vassallo (167/8-1660),22 Castiglione’s rival. Even Giovanni Agostino Cassana (c. 1665-1720), who was born later, retained this old-fashioned style. A fish still life of 1704 looks like a work by Clara Peeters (auctioned in London, 9 July 1926) [19].23

Sinibaldo Scorza
Orpheus charming the Beasts, c. 1615
canvas, oil paint 65.5 x 100.2 cm
Austin (Texas), Blanton Museum of Art, inv./ 523.1999

Antonio Travi
Pastoral scene
canvas, oil paint 124 x 163 cm
Private collection

Vincenzo Campi
Cook with Christ in the house of Martha and Mary
canvas, oil paint 130 x 186 cm
Modena, Galleria Estense, inv./ 4195

Jan Roos (I)
City market scene
canvas, oil paint 170.2 x 240.4 cm
Sotheby's (New York City) 2012-01-26, nr. 130

Giovanni Agostino Cassana
Still life of fish, dated 1704
panel, oil paint 60 x 74.5 cm
lower right : A. Cassana 1704
Finarte (Milan) 1980-04-29, nr. 49

Turin was likewise visited almost exclusively by Flemish painters.24 In the 16th century Jan Kraeck (c. 1540-1607) was court painter to Duke Emanuel Philibert of Savoy [20].25 Eduard Dubois (1609-1696), who admittedly trained in Haarlem, worked for eight years for Carlo Emanuele II di Savoia (1634-1675). In 1658 Carlo Emanuele II appointed Jan Miel (c. 1599-1664) court painter in Turin, a position which earned him the honorary title of Cavaliere. He died in the city in 1663.26 This painter of Bambocciate is barely recognisable in the Turin frescoes, but if we bear in mind that he became accustomed to ‘large-scale’ painting in Sacchi’s studio then he is certainly not out of place in these princely surroundings [21].27 Oddly enough, Dirck Helmbreeker (1633-1696) did not paint any religious scenes for the duke but a number of Bambocciate instead [22]. These were so well received that he was obliged to send two more in 1694/5.

Jan Kraeck
Portrait of Philip Emmanuel of Savoy (1586-1605), age five, 1591
canvas, oil paint 128 x 91 cm
upper center : philip de savoia principe - de piumonte a[.] sua an.º 5
Madrid (Spain), Museo Nacional del Prado

Jan Miel
Equestrian portrait of Enrichetta Adelaide di Savoia(1636-1676) and Ferdinand Maria von Bayern (1636-1679), 1658-1664
canvas, oil paint 357 x 368.5 cm
Turin, Reggia di Venaria

Dirck Helmbreeker
Food distribution at a monastery, dated 168[1?]
canvas, oil paint 66 x 85.3 cm
lower center :
Private collection

There are many connections between the two cities of Turin and Genoa and France. The Genoese landscape painter, Francesco Maria Borzone (1625-1679) [23], left his home country for Paris at an early age, as did Angelo Antonio Cignaroli (1767-1841) [24] from Turin in the 18th century. They both acquainted themselves with Wouwerman’s art (but not until they were in France?).28 In the case of Cignaroli, who also worked in Milan, Berchem’s art was revived in the elegant French variant we are familiar with from 18th century paintings. Another artist from Milan, Francesco Londonio (1723-1783) likewise deserves an honourable mention here [25]. He made delightful oil sketches in the style of Berchem, Rosa di Tivoli and Dujardin.29

Francesco Maria Borzone
Storm at a rocky coast
canvas, oil paint 57.5 x 74 cm
Paris, art dealer or private collection Robert Lebel

Angelo Antonio Cignaroli
View of the Moncalieri Castle
canvas, oil paint 51 x 72 cm
Sotheby's (Milan) 2002-12-03, nr. 204

Francesco Londonio
A group of farmers and animals
canvas, oil paint 190 x 280 cm
Christie's Roma (Rome) 1986-05-16, nr. 295

Returning now to the Florentine art circle we must focus our attention for a moment on the Dutch paintings in the Mansi Collection in Lucca, one of the oldest collections of Dutch art in Italy. Anna Maria van Diemen (c. 1650-1699) [26], who married an Italian merchant by the name of Girolamo Parensi (1633-1713) in Amsterdam in 1675, had in her dowry a charming collection of paintings and when the married couple later moved to Italy the collection naturally went with them [27].30 When Raffaele Mansi married a Parensi in 1742 [=1792], the collection came into the possession of the Mansi family, which still owns it today.31

Nicolaes Maes
Portrait of Anna Maria van Diemen (c. 1650-1699), dated 1675
canvas, oil paint 123.2 x 102.8 cm
lower left : N. Maes 1675
London, art dealer Richard Green

Ferdinand Bol
Abraham's sacrifice, dated 1646
canvas, oil paint 268 x 213 cm
lower right : F. Bol fecit 1646
Lucca, Museo di Palazzo Mansi, inv./ 1085-24

The port city of Livorno, which was the seat of a Dutch consulate, does not appear to have had any appeal for Dutch artists. Moreover, the consuls had no great financial means at their disposal. There was only one occasion on which an artist – Jan van Bunnick (1654-1727) – was reported to have worked for the Dutch consul.32 Augustinus Houbraken was also active in Livorno. He painted various altarpieces for the church of Santissima Annunziata, where they can still be seen today.33

As regards the remaining Dutchmen who made their way to other places in Northern Italy, it will be sufficient to mention them briefly by name. 34 In only one field was there still a tangible Dutch influence and that was in still lifes, this also being the case in Naples. The oldest painter in this group of artists was Andrea (Andries) Benedetti, whom we met previously in Antwerp [28], where he distinguished himself as an imitator of Heda and van Beyeren. Hoogewerff suspected that he returned home around 1650 and that this home was possibly Parma, where some of his paintings are still to be found.35 Paolo Antonio Barbieri (1603-1649) [29] from Bologna can be mentioned here, although his style was more closely related to the Flemish still lifes of Adriaen van Utrecht (1599-1652). Another distinct group was formed by the painters of still lifes with musical instruments. They included Evaristo Baschenis (1617-1677) [30], Bartolommeo Bettera (1639-after 1688) [31]36 and Christoforo Munari (1667-1720) [32],37 who excelled in the astounding foreshortening of perspectives. This exaggerated form of realism seems strange, but the Dutch vanitas still lifes, which initially spring to mind here, are treated in a more painterly fashion and are more loosely composed.38 Caravaggio himself will probably have been the source of inspiration here, although Delogu rightly points to similar compositions in the work of Adriaen van Utrecht.39 The fish still lifes are highly reminiscent of Jacob Gillig. Dutch poultry still lifes must have served as the model for the Italian minor masters who devoted their attention to this special genre of painting.40

Andreas Benedetti
Still life with a view of a Hill Landscape on the right, 1640-1649
canvas, oil paint 168.0 x 241.0 cm
Budapest, Szépmüvészeti Múzeum, inv./ 255

Paolo Antonio Barbieri
Still life with objects of a cavalier, dated 1649
canvas, oil paint 87 x 104 cm
location unknown : P. BARBIERI 1649
Private collection

Evaristo Baschenis
A still-life with musical instruments, a statue, a music book and other books
canvas, oil paint 94 x 124 cm
Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, inv./ 2688

Bartolommeo Bettera
A Still-Life of musical Instruments and Books, a Casket, and a celestial Globe
canvas, oil paint 48.9 x 73.3 cm
Paris/New York, art dealer Haboldt & Co.

Cristoforo Munari
Still life with musical instruments, between c. 1710-1715
canvas, oil paint 133.4 x 97.2 cm
Houston (Texas), Museum of Fine Arts Houston, inv./ 61.60

Felice Boselli (1650-1732) from Piacenza was a painter of doves [33].41 He studied under Pietro Paolo Bonzi (1573-1636) in Rome and probably took over a number of Flemish customs from him as he progressed, these being clearly visible in his paintings of fruit [34]. His doves, on the other hand, were seen through Dutch eyes and painted in accordance with Hondecoeter’s formula. Melchior d’ Hondecoeter (1635/6- 1695) never went to Italy himself, but Jacomo Victors (1640-1705) provides evidence of his approach in Italy [35].42 The works of the Milanese artist, Angelo Maria Crivelli (c. 1650-1730), known as Il Crivellone, would be unthinkable without Hondecoeter’s inspiration [36]. Some of them are more primitive and in their conception more readily comparable with Roelant Savery’s (1576-1639) paintings of hens. In his more dynamic pictures he naturally follows Frans Snijders (1579-1657) and Paul de Vos (1595-1678).43

Felice Boselli (I)
Still life with poultry, and a cat, a pigeon and a guinea pig, c. 1690
canvas, oil paint 137 x 163 cm
Parma, Galleria Nazionale di Parma, inv./ 704

Pietro Paolo Bonzi
Still life with Fruit
canvas, oil paint 134 x 99 cm
Stockholm, Nationalmuseum Stockholm, inv./ NM 35

Jacomo Victors
A rooster with chickens, pigeons and a marmot, dated 1674
canvas, oil paint 128 x 111 cm
lower center : Jacomo Victor f 1674
Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv./ SK-A-1674

Angelo Maria Crivelli
Birds and Rabbits in a Landscape
canvas, oil paint 177 x 237 cm
Christie's (Milan) 2010-11-24, nr. 54

This genre was represented in Bologna by Candido Vitali (1680-1753) [37]. Here again Jacomo Victors and Melchior d’Hondecoeter can be cited as models. In Brescia, finally, the Duranti brothers, Giorgio Duranti (1687-1753)44 [38] and Faustino Duranti (1696-1764) [39], produced very painterly pictures of small farm animals which would have been a credit to someone like Johannes Spruyt (1627/8-1671).45 Brescia, incidentally, was also where the influence of the Bambocciate lasted longest. Ceruti and Cipper-Todeschini were the final representatives of this originally Dutch movement which by now had been fully assimilated into Italian art.

Candido Vitali
Hunting still life with a dog and a turkey
canvas, oil paint 97.5 x 132 cm
Dorotheum (Vienna (city)) 2001-03-22, nr. 34

Giorgio Duranti and Andrea Toresani
Poultry in a landscape, c. 1720-1730
canvas, oil paint 44 x 54.4 cm
Brescia, Pinacoteca Tosio Martinengo

attributed to Giorgio Duranti or attributed to Faustino Duranti or attributed to Angelo Maria Crivelli
Peacock with chickens in a park landscape
? x ? cm
Dorotheum (Vienna (city)) 1965-11-30 - 1965-12-03, nr. 38


1 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] See Marengo 2018. See also Meijer in Fontana Amoretti/Plomp 1998, p. 11.

2 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Barnes et al. 1997; Orlando 2018.

3 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Boccardo/Orlando 2004.

4 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019 ] Marengo 2018, p. 134-135.

5 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] The registers of the parish of San Lorenzo in Lucina in Rome record, that the painter died there on the 14th of April, 1644: 'Fol. 8v: Il Signor Vincenzo Malo, Fiamengo pictore, di età di anni 42 in circa, morì nella comunione della S. Madre Chiesa nella casa dove habbitava alla Selciata della Trinità de'Monti; il cui corpo fu sepolto nella chiesa della S. Ma. Trinità de'Monti, doppo essersi confessato… ‘ (Hoogewerff 1942, p. 199). Other authors, from von Wurzbach in 1910 on till as recently as Saur in 2015 ('14-4-1644 or before 1656/57') and Ecartico in 2019 ('Genoa 1656'), probably took the mention of his widow's death between 18 September 1656 and 18 September 1657 in Rombouts/Van Lerius 1872/1961, p. 281, as the date 'ante quem' and equated it wrongly with his death date. Malo’s birthdate remains uncertain. In a document of 12 March 1637 the painter declares to be 31 years old, while the archival source cited above suggest that he was about 42 years old at the time of his death in 1644.

6 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019 ] Marengo 2018, p. 142-143.

7 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On de Wael and his circle: Stoesser 2018.

8 [Gerson 1942/1983] In addition to the artists mentioned below, we see Vincent Laurensz. van der Vinne I pass by; later in the century: Hendrik Vroom and Leonaert Bramer. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] As stated above, Gerson made a mistake about van de Vinne, who did not go to Genoa (§ 2.6, note 29).

9 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Mulier II: Roethlisberger 1970; Roethlisberger 1978.

10 [Gerson 1942/1983] Hoogewerff 1938, p. 96-99, 114, 124. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] He had a Roman wife (Lucia Rossi, who he allegedly murdered later on) and a six-year old son in 1663, indicating that he was already in Rome since c. 1656; documented in Roman parishes’ archives in 1663-1664 and 1666-1670 (Roethlisberger 1970, p. 16).

11 [Gerson 1942/1983] Haumann 1927, p. 81, 89; Fiocco 1929, p. 84; Bonzi 1937. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Morassi points out several borrowings from Netherlandish art (Morassi 1973). See also De Klerck 2002.

12 [Gerson 1942/1983] Delogu 1931, fig. 63-93. See also p. 170 and 187. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Tavella: Bonzi 1961.

13 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Von Koskull 1937. On Jan (Giovanni), Orazio, Alessandro and Carlo Leopoldo Grevenbroeck: Dassie 2019. The publication includes oeuvre catalogues and archival references.

14 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Castiglione: Bellini/Alberici/Minonzio 1983; Jeutter 2004; Standring/Clayton 2013.

15 [Gerson 1942/1983] A good example for this technique is also B. 21 (Diogenes). The study head B. 50 is particularly close to Rembrandt. A drawn copy in the Louvre was formerly attributed to Rembrandt (Hofstede de Groot 1906, no. 625; Lugt 1929-1930, vol. 3, no. 1311). Another copy in Dresden (fig. 19/57). The study head B. 51 is more after Lievens than after Rembrandt. See also Delogu 1928. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] The fifth print of the series Small Oriental Heads (B. 36) was considered to be by Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione until 2004, when the correct authorship was established by Jaco Rutgers on the basis of a very early signed impression in Turin (Rutgers 2004).

16 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] For a recent addition to his oeuvre see the previous note.

17 [Gerson 1942/1983] Münz 1934, p. 27ff. On the influence of Rembrandt on the Northern Italian printmakers, compare Ricci 1918, p. 102.

18 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Scorza: Orlando et al. 2017.

19 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Travi: Zanelli 2001.

20 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Campi: De Klerck 1997.

21 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Roos: Orlando 2018.

22 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Orlando 2004.

23 [Gerson 1942/1983] Delogu 1931, p. 61-65.[Leeuwen/Sman 2019] The painting of 1704 was auctioned again on 29 April 1980, Milan (Finarte), no. 49.

24 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Meijer in Meijer/Sluiter/Squellati Brizio 2012, vol. 1, p. 9-25.

25 [Gerson 1942/1983] Hendrik Vroom worked in the studio of Jan Kraeck, called Caragua. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Kraeck: Sluiter 2002; Astrua et al. 2005-2006.

26 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] In the older literature it is wrongly assumed that he died 3 April 1663. This is corrected by Trezzani (in Briganti et al. 1983) to April 1664.

27 [Gerson 1942/1983] Hess 1932. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Jan Miel, see also § 2.4.

28 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Cignaroli was specialized in rendering topographically correct vedute, with minor attention for the staffage.

29 [Gerson 1942/1983] Image in Delogu 1931A, p. 179, fig. 391. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On his engraving: Scola 1994.

30 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] For the commercial activities of members of the Parensi family in Amsterdam: Cesari 1989. For the date of Girolamo’s and Anna Maria’s marriage (30 August 1675): Cesari 1989, p. 47. Girolamo Parensi and his wife probably returned to Lucca in 1690 (Ibid., p. 84-85). 17th-century Dutch portraits of Girolamo and Anna Maria, formerly in the Mansi collection, are now in a private collection in Milan (Borella/Giusti Maccari 1993, p. 194).

31 [Gerson 1942/1983] Jacobsen 1896; Moes 1908; Martin 1928. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] The marriage between Raffaele di Luigi Mansi and Camilla di Girolamo Parensi took place in 1792 (Borella/Giusti Maccari 1993, p. 145).

32 [Gerson 1942/1983] Houbraken 1718-1721, vol. 3, p. 339. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Only later in the 1730s, Johannes Antiquus (1702-1750) appears to have worked for the Dutch consul in Livorno, as Van Gool relates (Van Gool 1751-1752, vol. 2, p. 311). On Antiquus in Tuscany: Navarro 2008, p. 209-211. He arrived in Florence in the company of his brother ‘Lamberto Giovanni’, who specialized in the depiction of landscapes. Johannes enjoyed the protection of Grand Duke Gian Gastone de’ Medici and was close to Niccolò Gabburri. See also Gabburi n.d. ad vocem Lamberto Giovanni Anticus.

33 [Gerson 1942/1983] Fokker 1931, p. 89-90. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] The authorship of the works in the church of the SS. Annunziata or dei Greci Uniti is unclear. Pietro Volpi in his guide of Livorno (Volpi 1846, p. 157) attributes the works to ‘Agostino Wanonbrachen’, while Piombanti mentions ‘Niccolò Wanderbrach’ (Piombanti 1903, p. 219). In a recent publication the paintings are given again to ‘Agostino Wanonbrachen’ and dated 1750 (Passarelli 2001, p. 147, 150-151). The works under discussion decorate the doors of the old iconostasis of the church, and the painter has adopted a style that partially imitates that of the 17th-century icons produced by painters from Greece and Crete.

34 [Gerson 1942/1983] Hendrik Vroom was in Milan; Leonaert Bramer in Bologna, Parma, Mantua; Jan van Bunnik in Modena. Michiel van den Sande and François Knibbergen in Milan. Cornelis Verhuyck in Piacenza and Bologna. Fokker 1931, p. 63. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] The little known Cornelio Dusman (Amsterdam?-Vicenza c. 1680) stayed in Vicenza, where he painted a Market scene under the loggia of the Basilica (Avagnina/Binotto/Villa 2004, p. 270-271).

35 [Gerson 1942/1983] Hoogewerff 1924, no. 4-6; also compare Hoogewerff 1930.

36 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Baschenis and Bettera: Lever 2019.

37 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Munari: Baldassari/Benati 1999.

38 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] Meijer 1987, p. 223, rightfully stresses that it is difficult to establish specific links between the works of these Northern Italian still-life painters and those of their Dutch and Flemish colleagues.

39 [Gerson 1942/1983] Delogu 1930, p. 213.

40 [Gerson 1942/1983] Juynboll 1936.

41 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Boselli: Arisi 1995.

42 [Gerson 1942/1983] Nugent 1922/1925. Image in Ojetti et al. 1922, no. 39. Delogu 1930, p. 173-174.

43 [Gerson 1942/1983] Images in Delogu 1930, p. 171-178. [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Crivelli: Arisi 2004. His works are often confused with those of Adriaen de Grijef, Pieter Jansz. van Ruyven, Jan Fijt, and others.

44 [Leeuwen/Sman 2019] On Giorgio Duranti: Parisio 2004.

45 [Gerson 1942/1983] Images in Calabi 1935; L’Arengo, July 1935; Delogu 1930, p. 193-194.

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